Discussion:
Dangerous Air Disk Brake Calipers on the road
(too old to reply)
f***@hotmail.com
2015-12-26 19:41:42 UTC
Permalink
Prestress Hand Stickering

Hello Miss Sandra Quick

http://www.google.com/patents/US8423191

The "caliper prestress process" effectively coverts the casting of the caliper into the combination of an extrusion and a forging. Toughening the Caliper

The prestress process is much more important than I previously assumed as the caliper is designed physically much thinner in the webbing than possible without prestressing to fit inside an American style rim.

With the "invalid (10^6/10^4) duty cycle increase expectation" with faulty prestressing, the caliper is a massive ticking fatal time bomb.

Bendix is putting a product on the road that has bypassed federally mandated quality & function tests.

I was the Diagnostics department at Bendix. I was responsible for evaluating failed caliper assemblies for acceptability to be re-run through the assembly line after failure. And determining the causes of the failure.

Prior to working for Bendix, I was the Maintenance Supervisor for a Fruit Processing Plant covering a complete city Block.

I was in charge of returning to functionality anything that was electro-mechanical in the Plant.

https://www.google.com/maps/place/350+N+Cypress+St,+Orange,+CA+92866/@33.7926214,-117.8590303,17z/

Would your lawyers be interested in some contingency work recovering back wages and forcing a recall of every Caliper to come off the Bendix LSW air disk brake assembly line??

I want all management fired and if their side stepping of quality tests causes a death, I want them in Jail.

At ADB station 1 carrousel, when a caliper with a "Failed prestress sticker" is place on the carrousel, the QR code scanner fails the caliper.
No one ever checks to see if the caliper on the carrousel has actually passed prestress. A "passing prestress sticker" is place directly over the top of the FAILED sticker ("by Hand") by a Assembly team member and the bad caliper is sent through the line as good out to the customer.

Assembly line Workers having possession of "Free floating extra passing Prestress Stickers" is a Violation of Safety procedure.

These Extra Passing stickers would be Stored on a 4 x 6 inch waxed paper blank from a shipping bin sticker inside the station #1 safety cage behind the station control panel, (uncontrolled & within reach of ANY temporary employee).

The ADB Line lead "Tyler Bryant" would stay on the assembly floor during assembly worker break periods and run extra calipers to empty the line to increase productivity.

Then, the ADB Live Lead, "Tyler Bryant", would take his Lunch period break leaving the "UN SUPERVIZED Assembly line Team members" to continued to run ADB station #1 carrousel while in possession of "Free floating extra passing Prestress Stickers" for 35 minutes, completely invalidating the (Carrousel QR CODE Scanner safety net) keeping untested calipers from entering the assembly line & reaching the customer.

I would catch these "sandwiched failed stickers" in diagnostics .... Yes ?

No one at ADB station 1 carrousel has ever been told to actually check the caliper in the carousel for a failed prestress sticker because the caliper is Way in the back of the cell in the dark.

At ADB station 1 carrousel, a faulty assumption that the "sticker is damaged" is being made.

This makes ALL Bendix calipers made on the ADB LSW line "Suspect" and reason for recall.


Shop Floor management believes the entire Prestress procedure is a waste of time and unnecessary because Germany does not require or perform the Prestress procedure.
ADB Line Team leads do not even Understand European Wheel rim interior diameters are Larger allowing a full sized 22 inch rotor and a "full sized caliper" that is (NOT purposefully designed with thinner webbing) requiring Prestress toughening to reduce metal fatigue and subsequent Fracturing.

The Bendix LSW ADB Prestress procedure is a federally mandated NHTSA requirement

If anyone is killed or injured because of a Bendix caliper failure, there will be jail time for management who conspire to hide bypassing of caliper casting Prestress safety testing procedure.

Floor management knows printing bulk extra non-assigned passing stickers to place over existing unreadable stickers is a violation of specified safety processes (SOP).

The proper procedure for miss-read Prestress stickers is know by floor management but never told to line workers because it violates safety procedure. Line workers are told to hide bulk passing stickers out of view, but not why they are hiding the stickers.

Anyone who had worked ADB station 1 carrousel will be able to verify the above as true unless they are coerced and threatened by management. into silence and perjury

Bendix selling calipers that have purposefully bypassed mandatory safety testing.

The ADB line is staffed by mostly untrained temp employees with less than a couple months on the job who do not even know or understand the mandated safety processes. A Brand New Temporary Employee off the street with ZERO training can be running ADB LSW Station 1 Carrousel manually stickering calipers within 5 minutes of stepping foot on the shop floor, trained by another Temp employee with only 5 minutes of training the day before.

Every caliper to have ever come off the Bendix LSW line is Un-Safe and should be Recalled

Bluebird School Bus is a major purchaser of suspect Bendix air disk brake calipers.

The total count for the day on the Prestress sticker is 999, then resets to 001
The software was never designed to run 3 shifts of 500 parts for a total daily count of 1500, exceeding 1000.
While maintenance was figuring out why the count was resetting at 1000 parts, they were having ME take pictures of "every sticker" during the count transitioning 999 back to 001
I told them the software was never written to run 3 shifts a day and to switch to a hexadecimal count.

Robert Jozwiak Will be able to Verify ALL of my statements about the Prestress Process as 100 % True and Accurate

https://www.linkedin.com/in/robert-jozwiak-503995a

Robert Jozwiak of Advanced Manufacturing Engineering Manager at ARC


https://sites.google.com/site/hellomisslittle/home/prestress-hand-stickering

http://www.meritor.com/ourcompany/team/quick.aspx

https://www.linkedin.com/in/sandra-quick-354a24b2



I was fired 12th March 2015 because I Forced plant manger John Andrew Dale to make changes to the Assembly line to remove a (KNOWN dangerous publicly accessible Amputation hazard) directly after the ADB station #4 rework cell, that put (ANY plant VISTOR) at risk of Amputation that had remained knowingly unaltered for 4 months.

https://www.linkedin.com/in/andy-dale-a4803a11


Fired for Reporting Amputation Hazard


I was fired 12th March 2015 because I Forced plant manger John Andrew Dale to make changes to the Assembly line to remove a (KNOWN dangerous publicly accessible Amputation hazard) that put ANY plant VISTOR at risk of Amputation that had remained for 4 months. https://goo.gl/photos/tHxqD8xoN3dBWgTn6

Joshua Harris, Bendix Value Stream Leader, will be able to verify my statements about the station #4 Amputation hazard as 100 % true & Accurate https://www.facebook.com/UJosh


Bendix HR has publicly posted Official Personnel file Publically OnLine.
Bendix Corporate IP address will be attached to the posting of my personal information.

As a result of Bendix posting my information publicly online, I have been receiving public DEATH THREATS and threats of Physical Violence.

I am in constant fear for my life as a result of Bendix's internet Doxxing actions.

I am under EXTREME psychological stress which has caused PERMANANT Psychological & Physiologic Damage.

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/fired-reporting-amputation-hazard-david-fuller

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/prestress-hand-stickering-david-fuller

https://goo.gl/photos/HXfTSTnArxrVngRu6
f***@hotmail.com
2016-07-05 16:41:12 UTC
Permalink
Post by f***@hotmail.com
Prestress Hand Stickering
Hello Miss Sandra Quick
http://www.google.com/patents/US8423191
The "caliper prestress process" effectively coverts the casting of the caliper into the combination of an extrusion and a forging. Toughening the Caliper
The prestress process is much more important than I previously assumed as the caliper is designed physically much thinner in the webbing than possible without prestressing to fit inside an American style rim.
With the "invalid (10^6/10^4) duty cycle increase expectation" with faulty prestressing, the caliper is a massive ticking fatal time bomb.
Bendix is putting a product on the road that has bypassed federally mandated quality & function tests.
I was the Diagnostics department at Bendix. I was responsible for evaluating failed caliper assemblies for acceptability to be re-run through the assembly line after failure. And determining the causes of the failure.
Prior to working for Bendix, I was the Maintenance Supervisor for a Fruit Processing Plant covering a complete city Block.
I was in charge of returning to functionality anything that was electro-mechanical in the Plant.
Would your lawyers be interested in some contingency work recovering back wages and forcing a recall of every Caliper to come off the Bendix LSW air disk brake assembly line??
I want all management fired and if their side stepping of quality tests causes a death, I want them in Jail.
At ADB station 1 carrousel, when a caliper with a "Failed prestress sticker" is place on the carrousel, the QR code scanner fails the caliper.
No one ever checks to see if the caliper on the carrousel has actually passed prestress. A "passing prestress sticker" is place directly over the top of the FAILED sticker ("by Hand") by a Assembly team member and the bad caliper is sent through the line as good out to the customer.
Assembly line Workers having possession of "Free floating extra passing Prestress Stickers" is a Violation of Safety procedure.
These Extra Passing stickers would be Stored on a 4 x 6 inch waxed paper blank from a shipping bin sticker inside the station #1 safety cage behind the station control panel, (uncontrolled & within reach of ANY temporary employee).
The ADB Line lead "Tyler Bryant" would stay on the assembly floor during assembly worker break periods and run extra calipers to empty the line to increase productivity.
Then, the ADB Live Lead, "Tyler Bryant", would take his Lunch period break leaving the "UN SUPERVIZED Assembly line Team members" to continued to run ADB station #1 carrousel while in possession of "Free floating extra passing Prestress Stickers" for 35 minutes, completely invalidating the (Carrousel QR CODE Scanner safety net) keeping untested calipers from entering the assembly line & reaching the customer.
I would catch these "sandwiched failed stickers" in diagnostics .... Yes ?
No one at ADB station 1 carrousel has ever been told to actually check the caliper in the carousel for a failed prestress sticker because the caliper is Way in the back of the cell in the dark.
At ADB station 1 carrousel, a faulty assumption that the "sticker is damaged" is being made.
This makes ALL Bendix calipers made on the ADB LSW line "Suspect" and reason for recall.
Shop Floor management believes the entire Prestress procedure is a waste of time and unnecessary because Germany does not require or perform the Prestress procedure.
ADB Line Team leads do not even Understand European Wheel rim interior diameters are Larger allowing a full sized 22 inch rotor and a "full sized caliper" that is (NOT purposefully designed with thinner webbing) requiring Prestress toughening to reduce metal fatigue and subsequent Fracturing.
The Bendix LSW ADB Prestress procedure is a federally mandated NHTSA requirement
If anyone is killed or injured because of a Bendix caliper failure, there will be jail time for management who conspire to hide bypassing of caliper casting Prestress safety testing procedure.
Floor management knows printing bulk extra non-assigned passing stickers to place over existing unreadable stickers is a violation of specified safety processes (SOP).
The proper procedure for miss-read Prestress stickers is know by floor management but never told to line workers because it violates safety procedure. Line workers are told to hide bulk passing stickers out of view, but not why they are hiding the stickers.
Anyone who had worked ADB station 1 carrousel will be able to verify the above as true unless they are coerced and threatened by management. into silence and perjury
Bendix selling calipers that have purposefully bypassed mandatory safety testing.
The ADB line is staffed by mostly untrained temp employees with less than a couple months on the job who do not even know or understand the mandated safety processes. A Brand New Temporary Employee off the street with ZERO training can be running ADB LSW Station 1 Carrousel manually stickering calipers within 5 minutes of stepping foot on the shop floor, trained by another Temp employee with only 5 minutes of training the day before.
Every caliper to have ever come off the Bendix LSW line is Un-Safe and should be Recalled
Bluebird School Bus is a major purchaser of suspect Bendix air disk brake calipers.
The total count for the day on the Prestress sticker is 999, then resets to 001
The software was never designed to run 3 shifts of 500 parts for a total daily count of 1500, exceeding 1000.
While maintenance was figuring out why the count was resetting at 1000 parts, they were having ME take pictures of "every sticker" during the count transitioning 999 back to 001
I told them the software was never written to run 3 shifts a day and to switch to a hexadecimal count.
Robert Jozwiak Will be able to Verify ALL of my statements about the Prestress Process as 100 % True and Accurate
https://www.linkedin.com/in/robert-jozwiak-503995a
Robert Jozwiak of Advanced Manufacturing Engineering Manager at ARC
https://sites.google.com/site/hellomisslittle/home/prestress-hand-stickering
http://www.meritor.com/ourcompany/team/quick.aspx
https://www.linkedin.com/in/sandra-quick-354a24b2
I was fired 12th March 2015 because I Forced plant manger John Andrew Dale to make changes to the Assembly line to remove a (KNOWN dangerous publicly accessible Amputation hazard) directly after the ADB station #4 rework cell, that put (ANY plant VISTOR) at risk of Amputation that had remained knowingly unaltered for 4 months.
https://www.linkedin.com/in/andy-dale-a4803a11
Fired for Reporting Amputation Hazard
I was fired 12th March 2015 because I Forced plant manger John Andrew Dale to make changes to the Assembly line to remove a (KNOWN dangerous publicly accessible Amputation hazard) that put ANY plant VISTOR at risk of Amputation that had remained for 4 months. https://goo.gl/photos/tHxqD8xoN3dBWgTn6
Joshua Harris, Bendix Value Stream Leader, will be able to verify my statements about the station #4 Amputation hazard as 100 % true & Accurate https://www.facebook.com/UJosh
Bendix HR has publicly posted Official Personnel file Publically OnLine.
Bendix Corporate IP address will be attached to the posting of my personal information.
As a result of Bendix posting my information publicly online, I have been receiving public DEATH THREATS and threats of Physical Violence.
I am in constant fear for my life as a result of Bendix's internet Doxxing actions.
I am under EXTREME psychological stress which has caused PERMANANT Psychological & Physiologic Damage.
https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/fired-reporting-amputation-hazard-david-fuller
https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/prestress-hand-stickering-david-fuller
https://goo.gl/photos/HXfTSTnArxrVngRu6
CA2753816A1
DE112010001218T5
US8161614
US8423191
US20100236875
US20110303496
US20110307091
WO2010107612A1
f***@hotmail.com
2016-07-30 14:16:43 UTC
Permalink
Hello Mr. Mark Rosekind , Mr. Randy Reid & Ms. Nicole Moody

Prestress Failed Calipers Have a sticker with a "B" in the sequence Number attached to the caliper. In my department I have Processed Hundreds to calipers with an Applied Prestress Sticker with a "B" in the Sequence Number (0435B)

Every Single Operator to Run LSW ADB22x Assembly Line for more than a Day has Blindly Stickered over a (Failed Prestress QR Code Sticker) verifying a Successful Prestressing of the Caliper with a (Forged Re-Print Copy from a different Previous Prestress Process). They have done this (BLINDLY) because NO training on how to read a Prestress Sticker's Data been performed, nor has ANY Documentation EVERY been distributed to the Personnel running the LWS ADB22x Station #1 Carrousel.

A Forged Sticker is Place Manually over the Top of the sticker that is Unreadable by the QR Code Scanner that reads the sticker after the caliper is placed in the (LWS ADB22x Station #1 Carrousel), then the Cell's light screen is reset and the station fault condition Reset, the caliper is sent into the Line.

A "B" is attached to the Prestress Sequence number on the Sticker "0357B" for a Caliper that has Failed the Prestressing Process. This Sticker with the "B" IS Applied to the Failed Caliper.

Every Bendix Caliper that comes off the Assembly Line has Digitally Attached to the Caliper about 5 Pages of mechanical Function Test Data.

The Digital Identifiers & Daily Sequencing Numbers for the (Prestressing Process Sequence) & (Finished Caliper Sequence Data) are attached to this Data Packet.

This "Data Packet" containing the (Prestressing Process Sequence) & (Finished Caliper Sequence Data) is sent, in real time, as the calipers come off the line, to Knorr Bremse in Germany.

Each Physical Caliper has attached to it an Aluminum (Part number / Daily Sequence Serial Number) ID Tag.

The physical ID tag number Ties the Caliper to the Number on the Prestress QR Code Sticker that was Read by the QR Code Scanner on ADB LSW Station #1 Carrousel.

This Ties the Caliper to and Exact Stored Copy of the Exact Data Stored from each Prestressing Process.

Bendix / Knorr Bremse Stores all these Caliper Data sheets Containing Prestress Sequence Numbers Tied to End of Line ID tag Numbers.

You Can Subpoena this Verifiable Data from (Bendix / Knorr Bremse) to Verify 100% Veracity of a VAST NUMBER OF REPEATED FORGED PRESTRESS STICKER SEQUENCE NUMBERS.

The Prestress verification Stickers are a Vinyl Sticker with a Thermally transferred Black Resin from a spool of black resin coated Mylar.

Over time, This Black resin Pigment would Transfer to the Thermal Print Head, causing the stickers to be Unreadable, causing the stickers to be Unreadable by the QR Code Scanner on ADB LSW Station #1 Carrousel.

Bendix became APATHETIC about the Actual reason behind the Cause of the Fault on QR Code Scanner on ADB LSW Station #1 Carrousel, No actual physical verification of the sticker's Data is occurring before covering with a Forged passing Sticker. The Fault Condition was then Perpetually Blindly "Stickered Over" approaching 250 times per day when the Print head was very Dirty or there was another Printer or Sensor Problem.

The Line is perpetually filled with New Untrained inexperienced Temp Help that have NO IDEA what the Prestress stickers actually signify & regularly Move parts around having not been fully trained on the reason parts are in (Quarantine Area) thinking they are staying Productive.

David Fuller
Post by f***@hotmail.com
CA2753816A1
DE112010001218T5
US8161614
US8423191
US20100236875
US20110303496
US20110307091
WO2010107612A1
Bendix's Own engineers Clearly State prestressing calipers is NECESSARY to reduce Metal Fatigue to insure Public Safety

Clearly Stated FACTS in Bendix Own Filed Patent say Properly Performed Prestressing IS Necessary to insure Public Safety and is NOT OPITIONAL.


Various approaches have been considered for such redesigns, such as using materials other than the usual cast iron, using a smaller diameter brake rotor, and designing the calipers to be thinner in the radial direction to fit within a wheel rim. The common theme among the alternatives is attempting to decrease the radial height of the brake caliper, typically by removing material from the portion of the caliper which bridges over the outer radius of the brake rotor (i.e., the portion of the caliper between the brake application side and the reaction side of the caliper). None of these solutions has yet to provide a design without undesirable compromises, such as prohibitive cost (due to, for example, the use of higher strength, higher cost materials) or insufficient strength and/or fatigue life due to unacceptably thin caliper sections.


Engineering calculations and testing have shown that when a brake caliper is loaded during brake application, there are regions of very high stress in and near the areas of the brake caliper which reach over the outer radius of the brake disk. Calculations have demonstrated that when the amount of cast iron in the cross-disk region of a brake caliper is reduced in order to obtain sufficient wheel rim envelope clearance, the stress levels in cast iron brake calipers manufactured using conventional manufacturing methods are so high as to significantly reduce the fatigue life of the caliper, to the point that adequate caliper life cannot be assured. ( CALPIER LIFE CANNOT BE ASSURED )


Typical approaches to increase fatigue life include increasing the amount of material present in the highly-stressed region; modifying the geometry of the component to further distribute and reduce stresses; moving to higher cost, higher strength materials such as steel alloys, and various surface treatments.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,841,033 shows a method of improving fatigue performance in steel components (a much more ductile material than cast iron, which is brittle and unforgiving of excessive deflection). In this method, a compressive force is applied to specific points along the surface of the components to pre-stress the component in localized areas. This pre-stress is not applied over the entire surface of the components, or to inner regions.

http://www.google.com/patents/US8423191

The Performing Prestress Process is currently Costing Bendix about $500,000 a year.
The Lost Profit of the Wages of 15 employees could be recovered if the Prestress Process in (Not required) as your letter and Bendix Claiming.




From: ***@dot.gov
To: ***@live.com
Subject: Bendix Caliper Prestressing Process
Date: Thu, 28 Jul 2016 20:58:04 +0000


Mr. Fuller,

Thank you for your email to Administrator Rosekind. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is following up on our email sent to you earlier this month regarding your concerns with Bendix’s Caliper Prestressing Process. You assert that Bendix has a flaw in their manufacturing process that can allow for calipers (that have failed a pre-stress process) to make it onto final stage vehicles and present a safety hazard to the public.



NHTSA’s Office of Defects Investigation (ODI) checked Field Reports and complaints sent to NHTSA and no failures of Bendix calipers have been reported. NHTSA staff spoke with Bendix about the alleged issue. Bendix states the pre-stress process is not a required process and only adds to the calipers fatigue life. The pre-stress process is business confidential used uniquely by Bendix. The calipers have a 5 year warranty period and have had no failures (caliper fractures) reported as claims or complaints. They do a 100% inspection on the calipers. Although failed calipers are not tagged (UNTRUE), good ones are and the only way a caliper can precede in the manufacturing process is if a “good” Q.C. tag is on the unit. The caliper is electronically scanned for the tag before it can proceed. There is no way for a caliper that has not passed the pre-stress process to make it into the stream of good calipers. Based on this information, I do not believe that we have justification to open a defect investigation or take any other additional action.



We hope you find this information helpful.



Randy Reid, Chief

Correspondence Research Division

Office of Defects Investigation
f***@hotmail.com
2016-07-30 14:43:33 UTC
Permalink
Post by f***@hotmail.com
Hello Mr. Mark Rosekind , Mr. Randy Reid & Ms. Nicole Moody
Prestress Failed Calipers Have a sticker with a "B" in the sequence Number attached to the caliper. In my department I have Processed Hundreds to calipers with an Applied Prestress Sticker with a "B" in the Sequence Number (0435B)
Every Single Operator to Run LSW ADB22x Assembly Line for more than a Day has Blindly Stickered over a (Failed Prestress QR Code Sticker) verifying a Successful Prestressing of the Caliper with a (Forged Re-Print Copy from a different Previous Prestress Process). They have done this (BLINDLY) because NO training on how to read a Prestress Sticker's Data been performed, nor has ANY Documentation EVERY been distributed to the Personnel running the LWS ADB22x Station #1 Carrousel.
A Forged Sticker is Place Manually over the Top of the sticker that is Unreadable by the QR Code Scanner that reads the sticker after the caliper is placed in the (LWS ADB22x Station #1 Carrousel), then the Cell's light screen is reset and the station fault condition Reset, the caliper is sent into the Line.
A "B" is attached to the Prestress Sequence number on the Sticker "0357B" for a Caliper that has Failed the Prestressing Process. This Sticker with the "B" IS Applied to the Failed Caliper.
Every Bendix Caliper that comes off the Assembly Line has Digitally Attached to the Caliper about 5 Pages of mechanical Function Test Data.
The Digital Identifiers & Daily Sequencing Numbers for the (Prestressing Process Sequence) & (Finished Caliper Sequence Data) are attached to this Data Packet.
This "Data Packet" containing the (Prestressing Process Sequence) & (Finished Caliper Sequence Data) is sent, in real time, as the calipers come off the line, to Knorr Bremse in Germany.
Each Physical Caliper has attached to it an Aluminum (Part number / Daily Sequence Serial Number) ID Tag.
The physical ID tag number Ties the Caliper to the Number on the Prestress QR Code Sticker that was Read by the QR Code Scanner on ADB LSW Station #1 Carrousel.
This Ties the Caliper to and Exact Stored Copy of the Exact Data Stored from each Prestressing Process.
Bendix / Knorr Bremse Stores all these Caliper Data sheets Containing Prestress Sequence Numbers Tied to End of Line ID tag Numbers.
You Can Subpoena this Verifiable Data from (Bendix / Knorr Bremse) to Verify 100% Veracity of a VAST NUMBER OF REPEATED FORGED PRESTRESS STICKER SEQUENCE NUMBERS.
The Prestress verification Stickers are a Vinyl Sticker with a Thermally transferred Black Resin from a spool of black resin coated Mylar.
Over time, This Black resin Pigment would Transfer to the Thermal Print Head, causing the stickers to be Unreadable, causing the stickers to be Unreadable by the QR Code Scanner on ADB LSW Station #1 Carrousel.
Bendix became APATHETIC about the Actual reason behind the Cause of the Fault on QR Code Scanner on ADB LSW Station #1 Carrousel, No actual physical verification of the sticker's Data is occurring before covering with a Forged passing Sticker. The Fault Condition was then Perpetually Blindly "Stickered Over" approaching 250 times per day when the Print head was very Dirty or there was another Printer or Sensor Problem.
The Line is perpetually filled with New Untrained inexperienced Temp Help that have NO IDEA what the Prestress stickers actually signify & regularly Move parts around having not been fully trained on the reason parts are in (Quarantine Area) thinking they are staying Productive.
David Fuller
Post by f***@hotmail.com
CA2753816A1
DE112010001218T5
US8161614
US8423191
US20100236875
US20110303496
US20110307091
WO2010107612A1
Bendix's Own engineers Clearly State prestressing calipers is NECESSARY to reduce Metal Fatigue to insure Public Safety
Clearly Stated FACTS in Bendix Own Filed Patent say Properly Performed Prestressing IS Necessary to insure Public Safety and is NOT OPITIONAL.
Various approaches have been considered for such redesigns, such as using materials other than the usual cast iron, using a smaller diameter brake rotor, and designing the calipers to be thinner in the radial direction to fit within a wheel rim. The common theme among the alternatives is attempting to decrease the radial height of the brake caliper, typically by removing material from the portion of the caliper which bridges over the outer radius of the brake rotor (i.e., the portion of the caliper between the brake application side and the reaction side of the caliper). None of these solutions has yet to provide a design without undesirable compromises, such as prohibitive cost (due to, for example, the use of higher strength, higher cost materials) or insufficient strength and/or fatigue life due to unacceptably thin caliper sections.
Engineering calculations and testing have shown that when a brake caliper is loaded during brake application, there are regions of very high stress in and near the areas of the brake caliper which reach over the outer radius of the brake disk. Calculations have demonstrated that when the amount of cast iron in the cross-disk region of a brake caliper is reduced in order to obtain sufficient wheel rim envelope clearance, the stress levels in cast iron brake calipers manufactured using conventional manufacturing methods are so high as to significantly reduce the fatigue life of the caliper, to the point that adequate caliper life cannot be assured. ( CALPIER LIFE CANNOT BE ASSURED )
Typical approaches to increase fatigue life include increasing the amount of material present in the highly-stressed region; modifying the geometry of the component to further distribute and reduce stresses; moving to higher cost, higher strength materials such as steel alloys, and various surface treatments.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,841,033 shows a method of improving fatigue performance in steel components (a much more ductile material than cast iron, which is brittle and unforgiving of excessive deflection). In this method, a compressive force is applied to specific points along the surface of the components to pre-stress the component in localized areas. This pre-stress is not applied over the entire surface of the components, or to inner regions.
http://www.google.com/patents/US8423191
The Performing Prestress Process is currently Costing Bendix about $500,000 a year.
The Lost Profit of the Wages of 15 employees could be recovered if the Prestress Process in (Not required) as your letter and Bendix Claiming.
Subject: Bendix Caliper Prestressing Process
Date: Thu, 28 Jul 2016 20:58:04 +0000
Mr. Fuller,
Thank you for your email to Administrator Rosekind. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is following up on our email sent to you earlier this month regarding your concerns with Bendix’s Caliper Prestressing Process. You assert that Bendix has a flaw in their manufacturing process that can allow for calipers (that have failed a pre-stress process) to make it onto final stage vehicles and present a safety hazard to the public.
NHTSA’s Office of Defects Investigation (ODI) checked Field Reports and complaints sent to NHTSA and no failures of Bendix calipers have been reported. NHTSA staff spoke with Bendix about the alleged issue. Bendix states the pre-stress process is not a required process and only adds to the calipers fatigue life. The pre-stress process is business confidential used uniquely by Bendix. The calipers have a 5 year warranty period and have had no failures (caliper fractures) reported as claims or complaints. They do a 100% inspection on the calipers. Although failed calipers are not tagged (UNTRUE), good ones are and the only way a caliper can precede in the manufacturing process is if a “good” Q.C. tag is on the unit. The caliper is electronically scanned for the tag before it can proceed. There is no way for a caliper that has not passed the pre-stress process to make it into the stream of good calipers. Based on this information, I do not believe that we have justification to open a defect investigation or take any other additional action.
We hope you find this information helpful.
Randy Reid, Chief
Correspondence Research Division
Office of Defects Investigation
Knorr Bremse has Repeatedly Directly informed Bendix Management to Eliminate Repeated Duplicated Daily Prestress Sequence Numbers

It is Very Important to the Parent Company, Knorr Bremse, No Duplicate daily Prestress Sequence Numbers are Produced or Stored or Used in the Stored Calpier Quality Data
f***@hotmail.com
2016-07-30 14:59:50 UTC
Permalink
Post by f***@hotmail.com
Post by f***@hotmail.com
Hello Mr. Mark Rosekind , Mr. Randy Reid & Ms. Nicole Moody
Prestress Failed Calipers Have a sticker with a "B" in the sequence Number attached to the caliper. In my department I have Processed Hundreds to calipers with an Applied Prestress Sticker with a "B" in the Sequence Number (0435B)
Every Single Operator to Run LSW ADB22x Assembly Line for more than a Day has Blindly Stickered over a (Failed Prestress QR Code Sticker) verifying a Successful Prestressing of the Caliper with a (Forged Re-Print Copy from a different Previous Prestress Process). They have done this (BLINDLY) because NO training on how to read a Prestress Sticker's Data been performed, nor has ANY Documentation EVERY been distributed to the Personnel running the LWS ADB22x Station #1 Carrousel.
A Forged Sticker is Place Manually over the Top of the sticker that is Unreadable by the QR Code Scanner that reads the sticker after the caliper is placed in the (LWS ADB22x Station #1 Carrousel), then the Cell's light screen is reset and the station fault condition Reset, the caliper is sent into the Line.
A "B" is attached to the Prestress Sequence number on the Sticker "0357B" for a Caliper that has Failed the Prestressing Process. This Sticker with the "B" IS Applied to the Failed Caliper.
Every Bendix Caliper that comes off the Assembly Line has Digitally Attached to the Caliper about 5 Pages of mechanical Function Test Data.
The Digital Identifiers & Daily Sequencing Numbers for the (Prestressing Process Sequence) & (Finished Caliper Sequence Data) are attached to this Data Packet.
This "Data Packet" containing the (Prestressing Process Sequence) & (Finished Caliper Sequence Data) is sent, in real time, as the calipers come off the line, to Knorr Bremse in Germany.
Each Physical Caliper has attached to it an Aluminum (Part number / Daily Sequence Serial Number) ID Tag.
The physical ID tag number Ties the Caliper to the Number on the Prestress QR Code Sticker that was Read by the QR Code Scanner on ADB LSW Station #1 Carrousel.
This Ties the Caliper to and Exact Stored Copy of the Exact Data Stored from each Prestressing Process.
Bendix / Knorr Bremse Stores all these Caliper Data sheets Containing Prestress Sequence Numbers Tied to End of Line ID tag Numbers.
You Can Subpoena this Verifiable Data from (Bendix / Knorr Bremse) to Verify 100% Veracity of a VAST NUMBER OF REPEATED FORGED PRESTRESS STICKER SEQUENCE NUMBERS.
The Prestress verification Stickers are a Vinyl Sticker with a Thermally transferred Black Resin from a spool of black resin coated Mylar.
Over time, This Black resin Pigment would Transfer to the Thermal Print Head, causing the stickers to be Unreadable, causing the stickers to be Unreadable by the QR Code Scanner on ADB LSW Station #1 Carrousel.
Bendix became APATHETIC about the Actual reason behind the Cause of the Fault on QR Code Scanner on ADB LSW Station #1 Carrousel, No actual physical verification of the sticker's Data is occurring before covering with a Forged passing Sticker. The Fault Condition was then Perpetually Blindly "Stickered Over" approaching 250 times per day when the Print head was very Dirty or there was another Printer or Sensor Problem.
The Line is perpetually filled with New Untrained inexperienced Temp Help that have NO IDEA what the Prestress stickers actually signify & regularly Move parts around having not been fully trained on the reason parts are in (Quarantine Area) thinking they are staying Productive.
David Fuller
Post by f***@hotmail.com
CA2753816A1
DE112010001218T5
US8161614
US8423191
US20100236875
US20110303496
US20110307091
WO2010107612A1
Bendix's Own engineers Clearly State prestressing calipers is NECESSARY to reduce Metal Fatigue to insure Public Safety
Clearly Stated FACTS in Bendix Own Filed Patent say Properly Performed Prestressing IS Necessary to insure Public Safety and is NOT OPITIONAL.
Various approaches have been considered for such redesigns, such as using materials other than the usual cast iron, using a smaller diameter brake rotor, and designing the calipers to be thinner in the radial direction to fit within a wheel rim. The common theme among the alternatives is attempting to decrease the radial height of the brake caliper, typically by removing material from the portion of the caliper which bridges over the outer radius of the brake rotor (i.e., the portion of the caliper between the brake application side and the reaction side of the caliper). None of these solutions has yet to provide a design without undesirable compromises, such as prohibitive cost (due to, for example, the use of higher strength, higher cost materials) or insufficient strength and/or fatigue life due to unacceptably thin caliper sections.
Engineering calculations and testing have shown that when a brake caliper is loaded during brake application, there are regions of very high stress in and near the areas of the brake caliper which reach over the outer radius of the brake disk. Calculations have demonstrated that when the amount of cast iron in the cross-disk region of a brake caliper is reduced in order to obtain sufficient wheel rim envelope clearance, the stress levels in cast iron brake calipers manufactured using conventional manufacturing methods are so high as to significantly reduce the fatigue life of the caliper, to the point that adequate caliper life cannot be assured. ( CALPIER LIFE CANNOT BE ASSURED )
Typical approaches to increase fatigue life include increasing the amount of material present in the highly-stressed region; modifying the geometry of the component to further distribute and reduce stresses; moving to higher cost, higher strength materials such as steel alloys, and various surface treatments.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,841,033 shows a method of improving fatigue performance in steel components (a much more ductile material than cast iron, which is brittle and unforgiving of excessive deflection). In this method, a compressive force is applied to specific points along the surface of the components to pre-stress the component in localized areas. This pre-stress is not applied over the entire surface of the components, or to inner regions.
http://www.google.com/patents/US8423191
The Performing Prestress Process is currently Costing Bendix about $500,000 a year.
The Lost Profit of the Wages of 15 employees could be recovered if the Prestress Process in (Not required) as your letter and Bendix Claiming.
Subject: Bendix Caliper Prestressing Process
Date: Thu, 28 Jul 2016 20:58:04 +0000
Mr. Fuller,
Thank you for your email to Administrator Rosekind. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is following up on our email sent to you earlier this month regarding your concerns with Bendix’s Caliper Prestressing Process. You assert that Bendix has a flaw in their manufacturing process that can allow for calipers (that have failed a pre-stress process) to make it onto final stage vehicles and present a safety hazard to the public.
NHTSA’s Office of Defects Investigation (ODI) checked Field Reports and complaints sent to NHTSA and no failures of Bendix calipers have been reported. NHTSA staff spoke with Bendix about the alleged issue. Bendix states the pre-stress process is not a required process and only adds to the calipers fatigue life. The pre-stress process is business confidential used uniquely by Bendix. The calipers have a 5 year warranty period and have had no failures (caliper fractures) reported as claims or complaints. They do a 100% inspection on the calipers. Although failed calipers are not tagged (UNTRUE), good ones are and the only way a caliper can precede in the manufacturing process is if a “good” Q.C. tag is on the unit. The caliper is electronically scanned for the tag before it can proceed. There is no way for a caliper that has not passed the pre-stress process to make it into the stream of good calipers. Based on this information, I do not believe that we have justification to open a defect investigation or take any other additional action.
We hope you find this information helpful.
Randy Reid, Chief
Correspondence Research Division
Office of Defects Investigation
Knorr Bremse has Repeatedly Directly informed Bendix Management to Eliminate Repeated Duplicated Daily Prestress Sequence Numbers
It is Very Important to the Parent Company, Knorr Bremse, No Duplicate daily Prestress Sequence Numbers are Produced or Stored or Used in the Stored Calpier Quality Data
I am posting this to Ensure Public Safety.
And to Protect my Own Life, as (my own information from MY Bendix Personnel Record from Bendix Computers) has been Posted Publically on the Internet resulting in Death Threats and Threats of Physical Violence
f***@hotmail.com
2016-10-16 18:49:11 UTC
Permalink
Joshua C Harris, YOU ARE A LIAR AND A COWARD !!!!!!!!!!!!!
FUCK YOU !!!!

https://www.facebook.com/UJosh/posts/10210040043625099

Joshua C Harris

October 12 at 8:51pm ·

..

Homelessness In America

This is a research paper I wrote for college 8 years ago. I stumbled across it and it reminded me how little I've done since then to be a force for good. I spend so much time worried about my own life and challenges that I often fail to realize how much doing a little means alot when it comes to community involvement or helping your fellow man.

It's pretty profound when words you wrote at an earlier date make you feel pretty shallow at a later. I think I might listen to myself and try to look into this issue and offer more help in the future than I have in the past.

Homelessness is a problem that effects each and every city large and small in the United States. The numbers are staggering. The National Law Center estimates that there are 3.5 million people in the United States that are without shelter. 1.35 million of the 3.5 are estimated to be children (National Coallition for the Homeless). This is an unacceptable statistic considering that the United States led the world last year in GDP or Gross Domestic Product (a highly used statistic of prosperity). It has also been found that that in almost every city in the Union, the number of homeless far exceeds the capacity of shelters and other sources of relief. At the advent of the 21st Century, homelessness will be one of major challenges as a nation and as people in general.
The causes are varied in their origin. One of the main causes that has emerged recently is forclosure. Between April 12th, 2008 and April 12th, 2009, there was a 32% percent jump in the number of forclusures in the United States. This rising foreclosures rate can be attributed to the "burst of the housing bubble" in 2008. This phenomenon was caused when banks began basically "selling" high interest, variable rate mortgages to those who had little chance of affording them due to insufficient income. The mortgages were astonishingly deceptive. According to an article in Rolling Stone about the housing crisis, the average monthly payment on an adjustable mortgage for $100000 initially was $576 at 3%, then after a period of roughly 3 years, the average monthly payment rose to $1246 once the bank had adjusted the interest rate to 12%. The fact that the payment was going to go up so drastically was rarely shared with the new prospective homebuyer. Bankers would often tell people that the payment would go up but rarely over 6-8% and hardly ever over $700 monthly. This was a practice across the country. The rate would go up, people would lose their home due to foreclosures and those without family or friends to help would be left with nowhere to go (Rolling Stone Magazine).
Poverty in general is another cause of homelessness. The two terms are inexplicably linked. According to the text, many welfare reform initiatives have resulted in changes in policy that have increased the number of homeless (Burger, 2011). According to the NCH or National Coalition for the Homeless, 12.5% of the people in the United States are living beneath the poverty level. This is a staggering number of people who are barely getting by in a country recognized around the world as the "land of opportunity" (National Coallition for the Homeless). The greater the number of those living at the poverty level, the greater the number of homeless as those at the poverty level are simply on step or "mistake" away from being out on their own.
One of the main reasons for homelessness in the US today is without a doubt, the unemployment crisis. In the current recession, the United States has a staggering unemployment rate of 10%. This adds up to around 30 million people in this country that are currently out of work with the number increasing every day. However, with the increase in homelessness and unemployment, there hasn’t been an increase in emergency shelters or programs to get people back on their feet. In actuality, those have declined over the last 5 years. According the NCH, The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 repealed the Aid to Families with Dependent Children Program which was the single largest supporter of those living with poverty and homelessness providing much needed funds and provisions to those with children who have fallen on hard times. It seems with 1.5 million children on the street, one of the last things that we need to do as a country is to take away any aid program designed to benefit them.
Finally, one of the greatest causes of adult and teen homelessness is addiction. According to the NCH, the rate of addiction among members of the homeless population is incredibly high. However, there are few places to turn for those who live on the street for treatment. Most of the public assistance programs in all major cities are backlogged with people wanting assistance with their problems. There has to be a revival of support for substance addiction in this country. It has permeated every level of our society and caused countless problems. It is no longer a matter of question. Everyone from judges to congressmen to the homeless population has been affected. Yet, lawmakers and other policy "experts" refuse to be honest about the effect of substance abuse on our country. There are currently thousands of drug wars fought in nearly every country of Central America over who gets to supply the United States with narcotics. I would venture to say that there isn't a person in this country who can't name at least one alcoholic or addict that they know. Yet, there are few if any government sponsored treatment programs that help people get sober, back on their feet, and back into society. Until we, as a people, attack the drug problem with care and treatment instead of prisons and criminal records, the homeless problem will persist and continue to be just that--a problem.
Though things look bleak for the homeless in our country, there are a few cities who have taken positive action and found creative ways to help and assist the homeless. I live in Nashville and we have several good things going recently that I wish would be used as a template in other cities in the United States.
The first is the NHP or Nashville Homeless Paper or Contributor (The Contributor). A few years back, a couple in Nashville started this program which allows homeless people in Nashville sell a paper to passersby on the city streets. The papers are sold for 1 dollar a piece and feature news about the city as well as things that affect its population both housed and homeless. According to the contributor, At least 1/3 of its 400 vendors have gone from homeless to housed since the program began this year. These are great percentages. Also, 75 cents of the dollar paid for the paper goes to its vendor leaving the other quarter to maintain the overhead of the institution. Also, vendors must be sober when they pick up the papers and drop off their take for the day. The effects of this program have been astonishing. A year or so back I can remember seeing the streets littered with panhandlers and homeless crime was through the roof. Now you see the streets littered with people selling papers and working to make their lives better.
Another great initiative that Nashville has taken has been the Union Mission homeless shelter. About 3 years ago, a former homeless man started a drug and alcohol rehabilitation program for those of the homeless population previously thought to be hopeless. Homeless members are taken into the shelter on their own request and go through a 12 week program designed by someone who has "walked the same streets in their shoes". The astonishing fact is that 17% of the people who have been through the program have returned to work and rejoined society meaning they have 1) held a job for over a year 2) stayed sober for that year and 3) volunteer 1 day a month to help others. I would challenge any other organization in the United States to show some success stats such as those. I haven't seen any.
The bottom line is that these programs are innovative examples that help contribute toward eliminating the homeless problem in one city. If they were adopted by others, who knows what could be accomplished. The problem of homelessness will only be ultimately solved when we use the better part of our compassion and innovation to help those less fortunate than ourselves and this change has to occur on the highest levels of our society in order for the lowest to feel the difference.
Works Cited
Burger, W. R. (2011). Human Services in Contemorary America. New York: Cengage Learning.
National Coallition for the Homeless. (n.d.). National Coallition for the Homeless. Retrieved July 3, 2011, from http://www.nationalhomeless.org/factsheets/How_Many.html
Rolling Stone Magazine. (n.d.). rollingstone.com. Retrieved February 26, 2010, from www.rollingstone.com
The Contributor. (n.d.). Nashville Homeless Paper. Retrieved July 3, 2011, from http://thecontributor.org/main/
f***@hotmail.com
2016-11-27 22:58:23 UTC
Permalink
VENGEANCE is Mine

https://groups.google.com/forum/m/?source=mog&gl=us#!topic/sci.physics.relativity/-uSmgfcH1aw
Ed Light
2016-11-28 03:22:10 UTC
Permalink
Just found a bunch of numbers.

Did you get the dangerous situation fixed?

Maybe you could start at one of those online petition sites.
Post by f***@hotmail.com
VENGEANCE is Mine
https://groups.google.com/forum/m/?source=mog&gl=us#!topic/sci.physics.relativity/-uSmgfcH1aw
--
Ed Light

Better World News TV Channel:
http://realnews.com

Send spam to the FTC at
***@uce.gov
Thanks, robots.
f***@hotmail.com
2016-12-02 20:06:39 UTC
Permalink
https://groups.google.com/forum/m/#!topic/sci.physics.relativity/E6O_JNz-wio

Physics seem to be unified now
f***@hotmail.com
2016-12-03 00:35:56 UTC
Permalink
Post by Ed Light
Just found a bunch of numbers.
Did you get the dangerous situation fixed?
Maybe you could start at one of those online petition sites.
Post by f***@hotmail.com
VENGEANCE is Mine
https://groups.google.com/forum/m/?source=mog&gl=us#!topic/sci.physics.relativity/-uSmgfcH1aw
--
Ed Light
http://realnews.com
Send spam to the FTC at
Thanks, robots.
"Ed Light" Has to be a Pseudonym

But Hello Ed Anyway

https://sites.google.com/site/lordkronosprime/theory-of-everything

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Unified_Theory#Proposed_theories
f***@hotmail.com
2017-06-28 13:47:03 UTC
Permalink
Bendix® ADB22XTM-LT Air Disc Brake
New for the trailer industry, from the North American air disc brake leader.
We’ve weighed the benefits carefully.
The Bendix ADB22X-LT has up to a 23,000-pound brake rating, making it a perfect choice for today’s trailer market. It builds on the success of the ADB22X design, currently on nearly 90% of the air disc brake installations in North America.
Although the LT is lighter weight, you can count on the same performance and durability you’ve come to expect from Bendix air disc brakes. A new adjuster mechanism and pad extend service life while reducing the risk of dragging brakes. And, when maintenance is required, it’s significantly faster than drum brakes.
Built on a proven, successful platform.
Both the Bendix ADB22X and the ADB22X-LT air disc brakes share common replacement wear items along with streamlined maintenance, training, and inventory requirements. That means if you’re currently running Bendix ADB22X air disc brakes on your tractors, you can keep costs in check even more by choosing ADB22X-LT for your trailers as well.
Here’s how you’ll benefit:
• Weight savings – 40 lbs. per tandem axle set over ADB22X
• Extended service life, lower maintenance costs and downtime
• A new adjustment mechanism that reduces the risk of brake drag, extending pad life
• Pads that feature 8% more wearable volume and up to 40% improvement* in wear rate, while meeting the EPA’s 2021 Copper-Free Brake Initiative
• Shares common replacement wear items with Bendix ADB22X on tractor
• Same 5-year warranty as ADB22X
*wear improvement based on wheel-end operating temperature
Expect exceptional post-sales support.
Choose the newest ADB with confidence, knowing you’ll be backed by an exceptional support team from Bendix. That includes field-tested sales and service professionals, our ASE-certified field technical support team, and the Bendix Tech Team, available on our expert technical support phone line at 1-800-AIR-BRAKE. Plus, you can log on and learn from the best in braking by visiting brake-school.com.
On the road, you’ll find that Bendix air disc brake service parts are readily available from OEM dealers and an extensive aftermarket parts network, so you’ll have fast and easy access to what you need, when and where you need it.
To find out more about the advantage of the Bendix ADB22X-LT air disc brake, talk to your Bendix account manager today or call Bendix at 1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725). Visit foundationbrakes.com for more information.

http://www.foundationbrakes.com/media/documents/airdiscbrakes/BW7587_US_000.pdf

ADB22X-LT
f***@hotmail.com
2017-06-28 13:48:12 UTC
Permalink
News Release
For more information, contact:
Barbara Gould or
Bendix Commercial Vehicle Systems LLC
(440) 329-9609 ***@bendix.com
Ken Kesegich
Marcus Thomas LLC
(888) 482-4455 ***@marcusthomasllc.com
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
HYUNDAI TRANSLEAD NOW OFFERS BENDIX® ADB22X-LT AIR DISC BRAKE Trailer-Specific Brake Helps Leading Manufacturer
Deliver Performance and Maintenance Advantages
ELYRIA, Ohio – June 19, 2017 – Aiming to provide its customers with trailers that combine the performance of air disc brakes with leading-edge weight-saving and maintenance advantages, Hyundai Translead now offers the Bendix® ADB22XTM-LT from Bendix Spicer Foundation Brake.
“The advantages of air disc brakes are well-recognized across the industry, but the trailer market brings a different set of challenges and demands than tractor applications,” said Keith McComsey, director, marketing and customer solutions, Bendix Spicer Foundation Brake (BSFB). “The ability of the ADB22X-LT to meet those needs – and deliver dependability to fleets and drivers across North America – reflects our commitment to safety while lowering total cost of ownership.”
Engineered exclusively for trailers and unveiled in September 2016, the ADB22X-LT advances the design of Bendix’s ADB22XTM, which is spec’d on more than 85 percent of Class 6-8 wheel-ends in North America that are equipped with air disc brakes. The ADB22X-LT’s design weighs in at 40 pounds lighter per tandem axle, making it the lightest air disc brake available in the market, and helping deliver increased payload capacity and value in trailer applications that are particularly sensitive to brake weight. Lighter weight trailer wheel-ends can also help fleets and drivers improve their overall fuel efficiency and offset the weight of trailer systems used to improve fuel efficiencies, such as aerodynamics.
Trailer customers who spec the LT will enjoy the same advantages, and more, as ADB22X customers. Like its predecessor, the Bendix ADB22X-LT offers a pad replacement time approximately one-quarter that of foundation drum brakes, once the wheel is removed,

http://www.bendix.com/media/documents/press_releases/2017/Hyundai_22XLT_FINAL.pdf
f***@hotmail.com
2017-07-07 12:34:31 UTC
Permalink
https://www.nde-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Materials/Mechanical/StressStrain.htm

Stress and Strain

Stress
The term stress (s) is used to express the loading in terms of force applied to a certain cross-sectional area of an object. From the perspective of loading, stress is the applied force or system of forces that tends to deform a body. From the perspective of what is happening within a material, stress is the internal distribution of forces within a body that balance and react to the loads applied to it. The stress distribution may or may not be uniform, depending on the nature of the loading condition. For example, a bar loaded in pure tension will essentially have a uniform tensile stress distribution. However, a bar loaded in bending will have a stress distribution that changes with distance perpendicular to the normal axis.

Simplifying assumptions are often used to represent stress as a vector quantity for many engineering calculations and for material property determination. The word "vector" typically refers to a quantity that has a "magnitude" and a "direction". For example, the stress in an axially loaded bar is simply equal to the applied force divided by the bar's cross-sectional area.



Some common measurements of stress are:
Psi = lbs/in2 (pounds per square inch)
ksi or kpsi = kilopounds/in2 (one thousand or 103 pounds per square inch)
Pa = N/m 2 (Pascals or Newtons per square meter)
kPa = Kilopascals (one thousand or 103 Newtons per square meter)
GPa = Gigapascals (one million or 106 Newtons per square meter)
*Any metric prefix can be added in front of psi or Pa to indicate the multiplication factor

It must be noted that the stresses in most 2-D or 3-D solids are actually more complex and need be defined more methodically. The internal force acting on a small area of a plane can be resolved into three components: one normal to the plane and two parallel to the plane. The normal force component divided by the area gives the normal stress (s), and parallel force components divided by the area give the shear stress (t). These stresses are average stresses as the area is finite, but when the area is allowed to approach zero, the stresses become stresses at a point. Since stresses are defined in relation to the plane that passes through the point under consideration, and the number of such planes is infinite, there appear an infinite set of stresses at a point. Fortunately, it can be proven that the stresses on any plane can be computed from the stresses on three orthogonal planes passing through the point. As each plane has three stresses, the stress tensor has nine stress components, which completely describe the state of stress at a point.

Strain
Strain is the response of a system to an applied stress. When a material is loaded with a force, it produces a stress, which then causes a material to deform. Engineering strain is defined as the amount of deformation in the direction of the applied force divided by the initial length of the material. This results in a unitless number, although it is often left in the unsimplified form, such as inches per inch or meters per meter. For example, the strain in a bar that is being stretched in tension is the amount of elongation or change in length divided by its original length. As in the case of stress, the strain distribution may or may not be uniform in a complex structural element, depending on the nature of the loading condition.



If the stress is small, the material may only strain a small amount and the material will return to its original size after the stress is released. This is called elastic deformation, because like elastic it returns to its unstressed state. Elastic deformation only occurs in a material when stresses are lower than a critical stress called the yield strength. If a material is loaded beyond it elastic limit, the material will remain in a deformed condition after the load is removed. This is called plastic deformation.

Engineering and True Stress and Strain
The discussion above focused on engineering stress and strain, which use the fixed, undeformed cross-sectional area in the calculations. True stress and strain measures account for changes in cross-sectional area by using the instantaneous values for the area. The engineering stress-strain curve does not give a true indication of the deformation characteristics of a metal because it is based entirely on the original dimensions of the specimen, and these dimensions change continuously during the testing used to generate the data.

Engineering stress and strain data is commonly used because it is easier to generate the data and the tensile properties are adequate for engineering calculations. When considering the stress-strain curves in the next section, however, it should be understood that metals and other materials continues to strain-harden until they fracture and the stress required to produce further deformation also increase.

Stress Concentration
When an axial load is applied to a piece of material with a uniform cross-section, the norm al stress will be uniformly distributed over the cross-section. However, if a hole is drilled in the material, the stress distribution will no longer be uniform. Since the material that has been removed from the hole is no longer available to carry any load, the load must be redistributed over the remaining material. It is not redistributed evenly over the entire remaining cross-sectional area but instead will be redistributed in an uneven pattern that is highest at the edges of the hole as shown in the image. This phenomenon is known as stress concentration.
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